What Is 5G and Why You Should Care About It

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5G Mobile network

If one considers the fact that the 4G mobile data service is still in the process of development when it comes to speed capabilities and coverage, he might wonder why he would need 5G at all. But the 5G standard is already here, with Internet providers such as Verizon and AT&T already planning to introduce 5G infrastructure and phones in the upcoming months.

What are the main characteristics of this brand new technology? What are its benefits, and why should you care about it? To find answers to these questions, keep reading – we’ll take an in-depth look at this innovative standard and analyze its advantages. Many Internet news portals reported on this last week and we even saw Motorola announcing a mod for one of their phones that will help the device utilize the new mobile standard. Here’s our breakdown of everything we learned so far.

 

The Key Features

Here is a list of characteristics that may turn 5G into a real game-changer:

  • Faster Speeds

As you probably already know, 5G will be a lot faster than all of the previous generation networks. Some experts even claim that it will be as much as 100 times faster than 4G, which is very impressive.

Network speeds

Specifically, 5G technology offers speeds of up to 10 GB/s, making it possible to download a full HD movie under just 10 seconds. That’s a huge increase in speed when compared to 10 minutes on the fastest 4G networks.

  • Greater Capacity

The brand new 5G standard also introduces greater capacity. In other words, it will allow the networks to cope better with all those high-demand applications, such as simultaneous HD streaming or virtual reality experiences.

  • Lower Latency

Another benefit that comes with 5G is the lower latency. This means less lag or delay while you’re using your smartphone or other devices. Latency stands at around 50 milliseconds with 4G, and this number will decrease to the impressive one millisecond with 5G – the lag becomes undetectable to the user.

  • Flexibility

The 5G networks will also be far more flexible. The technology of “network slicing” leads to a physical network being divided into a number of virtual networks, letting the operator use the correct “slice” depending on the needs of a particular situation.

  • Reliability

Experts say that 5G will be “ultra-reliable”, which, in other words, means that you can forget about weak connectivity or dropped calls. This will allow more “critical” use situations, especially when it comes to things like connected cards and digital health.

  • Better Battery Life

Even though all of this sounds like something that could take a serious toll on your battery, the 5G technology is actually expected to extend the battery life of many modern devices by up to ten or more times.

 

Who is Launching it and When?

AT&T will probably be the first company with mobile 5G – they plan to launch this network in 12 cities before 2019. Even though they didn’t give any particular details, this will probably be the so-called ‘millimeter wave 5G”, which requires dense networks of cells but delivers impressive speeds. However, it is important to mention that the company’s rollout will almost certainly be slowed down by the lack of compatible phones – Qualcomm says that they won’t introduce 5G devices before 2019.

Verizon, on the other hand, will start out by introducing a 5G home internet service, which will use home routers with fixed antennas. Even though you won’t be able to tote these things around, you’ll be able to enjoy gigabit internet in the comfort of your own home. The most significant benefit of the 5G home internet is a huge capacity – most homes now expect at least 200 GB of monthly usage, and that’s something that carriers simply can’t competitively offer with 4G as there is not enough capacity on this network’s cell sites.

T-Mobile decided to take a different approach – they are making a nationwide 5G network that will start out in 2019 and have a full nationwide coverage by 2020. Sprint plans to launch 5G smartphones early in the next year. The company’s CTO hints at Mobile World Congress in February.

 

Even though the change won’t happen overnight, 5G will undoubtedly bring a myriad of advantages to users and businesses. Many expect the 5G to be the leading force in the “fourth industrial revolution”, where everything is digitized and connected. Pretty exciting, wouldn’t you say?

The Impact Of Internet On Society

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The Impact Of Internet On Society

These days almost everyone has some type of device that they can use to connect to the internet and browse anything they want. All of that wouldn’t be possible without the advancements in technology in the past decade. Technology has been advancing at a rapid speed and if you are not following the latest news, then you will fall back quite fast because technology is not waiting for anyone. As mentioned almost everyone has some type of device a desktop computer or even a mobile device that they can use to connect with the internet and that tells us something, it tells us a story how our society has changed in the past few years just because of technology and internet.


Nobody was expecting that we will have one day something good and beneficial as the internet but here we are, not even realizing the impact that internet had on our lives and society in general. Well, today we are here to talk about that impact of the internet on society because we want to show people that they cannot function properly without internet or technology anymore. People who might not be using the internet or a smart device like a desktop computer are mostly older generations who decided not to follow the trend.

Changed Lives

InternetWe can say a lot of positive things about the internet and the technology, but can we say something negative about it? Of course, we can, but people decide not to listen and pay attention to these negative things because there are some much more important positive things. One negative thing that came with the internet is that our lives have changed and not only for the better. Take for example young kids, nowadays you will rarely see them playing hide and seek or any other activity because they are all inside playing together online connected to the internet. Nobody seems to talk about that situation, furthermore, they are still encouraging young kinds to play video games often. In some countries, competitive gaming has become a real thing and people can now build a career in gaming.

Social Media Impact

When we want to talk about the impact that internet had on society, the first thing that comes to our mind is social media because it is the most influential thing that has happened, and it has affected a huge number of people all over the world. Nowadays, we don’t ever think about how social media is a huge part of our lives, we are just using it every day like we were born with it. Some people cannot go one single day without using social media and that is very sad.

Social MediaOf course, social media is not all bad, there are plenty of good things that have come from it, but we had to mention it because it is a huge thing that has impacted our lives. Our society will never work like it worked 20 years ago without social media because we love being connected to other people.

Maravedis Predicts Internet Penetration In Canada To Exceed 70% By 2017

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The leading telecom market research and analyst firm Maravedis introduces its new Canadian Internet Database, called CID. In addition to providing information on Canadian Internet penetration rates by year, region and technology, CID offers the unique capability to access precise information classified by Postal Code, a first in the industry.

“We understand the investment implications of offering Internet access, and we believe this substantial database is essential to Internet Service Providers (ISP) looking to enhance revenues, improve customer loyalty, identify new prospective clients, create new customized service offerings and increase addressable market,” explained Julien Regoli and Adlane Fellah, the architects and originators of CID.

The analysis demonstrates an intrinsic correlation between Internet usage and specific demographic factors. Age, income, education and location are the most influential factors. “We have created an equation to represent this correlation and used it to estimate the level of household penetration in each of Canada’s Forward Sortation Areas (FSA), which provides users with higher quality projections taking into account the detailed socio-economic characteristics of this market,” continued Fellah.

Over 95% of Internet users on broadband access by 2017

According to Maravedis, Internet penetration per household in Canada will exceed 70% by 2017, and it is anticipated that 95% of Internet users will have subscribed to a high-speed (broadband) connection.

“The average monthly bandwidth usage per residential subscriber has increased from 50 Mbps in 2003 to 300 Mbps in 2005, which definitely makes dial-up service an increasingly frustrating experience,” says Adlane Fellah. Dial-up Internet subscribers are typically new or occasional users. And, as they increase their use, subscribers are likely to upgrade to a high-speed connection at some point.

Canada is a leading country when it comes to Internet penetration as well as broadband deployment, and they continue to intensify although at a slower pace than in the past few years. CID clearly projects a growing gap in penetration rate between the Atlantic and the Western Provinces. By 2017, British Columbia is expected to possess the highest Internet penetration rate at close to 80%, followed by Ontario and Alberta in the high 70s%. In contrast, Quebec, New Brunswick and Newfoundland are expected to reach around 55% penetration.

Although growth has decelerated, the Canadian Internet market will be interesting to watch in the coming years. Between changes in regulation and the introduction of new technologies such as Broadband Wireless Internet through WiFi and WiMAX, we expect an exciting future ahead as Wireless technologies are deployed, providing subscribers with portability and mobility features. As a result, Maravedis foresees there will be several subscriptions per household – a phenomenon Canadian households are experiencing today with cell phones.

Maravedis’ CID also includes a WiMAX supplement with all the vital information on current license holders in the 2.5 GHz band in Canada.

News Corp., DirecTV Take Broadband To The Max

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News Corp.’s zealous embrace of interactivity soon will reach way beyond the runaway success of the social networking Web site MySpace when its majority-owned DirecTV decides on a path and partners for creating a national WiMax network.

Approval is imminent for the project that could take at least two years and $2 billion, providing News Corp. and DirecTV a valuable wireless interactive broadband loop with consumers to directly sell content, advertising, goods and services. WiMax is a wireless a broadband technology often referred to as “WiFi on steroids” with a much wider 30-mile range than the more limited access offered by WiFi services. WiMax, which is short for World Interoperability for Microwave Access, also promises to provide more security and speed than traditional wireless connections.

“If we can pull something off … there is no reason why that shouldn’t link in with everything,” News Corp. chairman and CEO Rupert Murdoch said in a recent interview. “I would expect to have wireless broadband advanced in at least two or three cities before the end of this year, and then it might take two or three years to build it out across the entire country,” Murdoch said.

High-level sources say the unprecedented undertaking will involve strategic equity partners that bring WiMax spectrum, equipment and other expertise to the mix. In one of the most likely scenarios, News Corp. and DirecTV have been in advanced talks with Clearwire Corp., a WiMax venture of Craig McCaw, in which chipmaker Intel Corp. and equipment manufacturer Motorola Inc. recently invested $900 million.

McCaw has been amassing one of the largest stables of licensed radio spectrum to build his own national wireless WiMax network. Intel, which has a vested interest in the commercial success of WiMax, particularly for PC users, has been one of Clearwire’s partners from the start.

As an alternative, DirecTV also has been exploring the possibility of partnering with other WiMax spectrum owners such as Mobile Satellite Ventures (MSV) or acquiring its own WiMax spectrum when such rights are auctioned off by the FCC on Aug. 9. In such cases, DirecTV would have to pull together, on its own, more of the elements needed to build its own WiMax network.

Clearwire, such leading cable operators and DirecTV rivals as Comcast and Time Warner and telcos like Sprint Nextel also are among the more than 250 companies that have filed with the federal government to bid in the auction of wireless spectrum.

See complete article by Diane Mermigas on Hollywood Reporter: News Corp., DirecTV take broadband to the Max.

Vodafone Takes A Cautious View Of Mobile WiMAX

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Vodafone Takes A Cautious View Of Mobile WiMAX

Vodafone, the world’s largest wireless service provider by revenue, provides new insight into the carrier’s current assessment and future direction for next generation wireless technologies. In a talk at the April 20th IEEE East Bay ComSoc meeting, entitled, “Visions from a Global Carrier’s Crystal Ball,” Dr. Stanley Chia, Senior Director of Vodafone’s US R&D Group, made several observations about Mobile WiMAX and how it might be positioned against 3G data technologies like HSDPA (WCDMA) and EVDO (CDMA).

The theme of the talk was how 3G might co-exist with all the rapidly developing technologies (mobile WiMAX, mesh WiFi, VoIP, mobile broadcast).


Since their recent reorganization, they decided to make it clear that they must join their forces with FMC in a race where the main goal is sustainability. Their margins need to be sustained over time as they are trying really hard to avoid getting sidelined into becoming just a mere mobile operator. That is why they will take it easy on the main idea to combine their technology with a wireless network such as WiMAX. It can deliver the most effective way of getting wireless connection. It is not yet completely sure as to what will be their final decision.

Here are the key points of Dr Chia’s presentation, as they relate to the mobile WiMAX market:

– CAPEX is a very large barrier to entry for new wireless service providers. Huge sums must be invested in base stations, access nodes, other wireless infrastructure, core network switches and routers, billing systems and operations software, land, and lease hold improvements.

Vodafone

– Wireless access technologies will include: 3G data evolution, mesh WiFi, and mobile WiMAX.

– Mainstream vendors supporting mobile WiMAX include: Samsung (WiBRO in Korea), Intel, Alcatel, Siemens, Nortel, and Motorola. Cautious vendors include: Lucent, Nokia, and Ericsson. [He did not mention Cisco, which is apparently on the fence with respect to WiMAX].

– Being committed to their proprietary version of 3G, China will not likely push mobile WiMAX. Hence, the worldwide market will exclude the country with the most market potential.

– An optimistic projection was for mobile WiMAX metro networks to be in place in 2008 along and the technology would be integrated into PCs (like WiFi today). Handsets might be available in 2009, but VoIP would need to be ubiquitous and roaming would be an issue (unless dual mode phones were commonplace).

An article from the February 1st, Financial Times was cited to support Vodafone’s cautious stance on WiMAX. Here is a quote from that article (with some editorial modifications):

Vodafone“Is mobile WiMAX a credible substitute for 3G? Probably not. Its practical speed should be 2-10Mb/sec. But most 3G networks are already upgrading to an adequate 2Mb/sec. Spectrum is also a problem: most of the world’s existing 700 odd licences are regional, and some currently permit only fixed services. WiMAX avoids expensive royalty payments to Qualcomm, which owns most of 3G’s intellectual property. Still, building a ubiquitous Wimax network would be far more expensive than buying wholesale access to 3G with a virtual operator agreement.

“That leaves mobile WiMAX’s main potential as giant hotspots. The concentrated nature of mobile usage – three quarters of most peoples’ activity occurs in three locations – means this threat cannot be totally ignored. Dual mode handsets, which permit switching between networks (mobile and WiFi), are being developed by Nokia (and Motorola), among others. Qualcomm seemed to concede 3G’s potential inadequacies by buying Flarion, which specializes in a rival but similar technology (Flash OFDMA) to WiMAX, last August. The basic strategy of most mobile operators of being married to 3G, but being open minded about flings with other technologies, thus looks correct.”

Google Bids To Provide Free City-Wide WiFi To San Francisco

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Google Bids To Provide Free City-Wide WiFi To San Francisco

Municipal WiFi networks are sprouting up all over Silicon Valley, with projects covering a range of business models from free with advertisement-supported to premium service with no ads. With the greatest number of WiFi hotspots of any US city, San Francisco has recently announced its intention to build out a WiFi system covering the entire 49 square mile city.

Google Headquaters

Mountain View Project:

Back in November 2005, the city of Mountain View, CA accepted Google’s offer to blanket the city with free wireless Internet access. This will make Mountain View the first city in the Bay Area – and possibly the country – to get a full umbrella of free WiFi coverage.

Google will install more than 300 access points/network nodes, which will be mounted on streetlamp poles throughout the city. As part of a five-year contract, Google will test the system this summer. At that time, it will be possible to surf the Web with a wireless laptop in the city library, parks, and near bookmobiles throughout Mountain View.

The Mt View project is based on IEEE 802.11, using a wireless point to multipoint topology between the base stations and the gateways which Alvarion says is WiMAX ready for future upgrades.


Mountain View leaders say it’s only fitting that their city get free citywide Internet access, since Google sprouted in its back yard and has grown to become one of the world’s most powerful Internet search engines. “It’s going to make us one of the first, if not the first, to have citywide Internet. It’s a pretty cool thing,” Mayor Matt Neely said. “We’re thrilled for all our neighbor cities who get to follow our lead.”

Google’s San Francisco Municipal Bid:

Google’s San Francisco Muni WiFi proposal is a joint bid with Earthlink – who would own the network if their joint bid was accepted by the city. The network would cover just over 40 square miles. If selected, Google would provide free, rate limited access. DSL-like speeds for $20 a month have been publicly discussed. It is also not clear if Earthlink would be the only ISP, or if other WISPs could participate as well.

Information on the SF city web site refers to the proposed service as “affordable,” but also allows the city to designate certain parks, common areas and residential and business zones as free hot spots, allowing anyone with a WiFi device to gain access.

Google San FranciscoThe trick is to gain more attention and make sure that people understand that this is a place where they can count on free WiFi whenever they need it. It is a modern world out there and everyone has a device that can connect to the Internet. Giving them a free WiFi is the least that the city can do and that is exactly why they chose Mountain View as the exact location. All of this could be possible with the full support from Google. It was their idea to give people access to free wireless zones where all users can expect full and completely free WiFi coverage whenever they need it. Since this is a digital era, Google expects a lot of users on the gird each and every day so this will eventually turn out to be an excellent move that will give free service to the people.

The SF Muni WiFi system, called Tech Connect, would use 802.11b/g technology to provide users with 1 Mbps of downstream capacity without the need for external CPE for a cost of $10-18M. Ensuring in-home access to the greatest extent possible is one of the key goals of the system, which expect to provide coverage to 95% of outdoor areas with 90% in-building penetration.

Other bids include a submission from an effort known as SF Metro Connect, which is spearheaded by Cisco, IBM and wireless specialists SeaKay, as well as proposals from Communication Bridge Global, MetroFi, NextWLAN and Razortooth Communications.

It appears that a review panel will begin evaluating the proposals and hopes to make its decisions regarding the citywide Wi-Fi network by early April, at which time the San Francisco Department of Telecommunications and Information Services will enter into negotiations with the winning bidder.

XMax Sparks Low Power Wireless Revolution

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A little-known start-up has demonstrated wireless broadband 1000 times more efficient than WiMax – and claims the technique could also make wireless LANs that will run for years on watch batteries.

xG Technology, based in Sarasota, Florida, used a transmitter not unlike a cordless phone base station, operating in the unlicensed – and crowded – 900MHz band, to send a 3.7Mbit/s data signal to a radius of 18 miles across the suburbs of Miami, using 50mW and an omnidirectional antenna.

The data rate and specifications don’t exactly match xG’s original plan, which we reported in July, as the demo uses a narrower band and a lower data rate. However, with an omnidirectional antenna, the demonstration appears to have transmitted a signal at a power density other schemes would find impossible. The company’s xMax technology uses a novel modulation scheme, described at xG’s own site.

“xMax is unconventional,” said Stuart Schwartz, professor of electrical engineering at Princeton Universithy, who has scrutinised xG’s demonstration set-up, speaking at the xMax demonstration. “It is clever and innovative, but it is not magic. It uses single cycle modulation, and needs much less power than other technologies.”

xG has promised to have commercial systems ready by the second half of next year, which can be sold off-the-shelf. “We’re in discussion with channel partners, to make a shrinkwrapped package that would allow anyone to set up as a wireless ISP,” said Mooers.”In the longer term we see it rolling out to chips that will be in millions of different units.”

The same technology could also make licensed broadband services more efficient, said Professor Schwartz: “WiMax would require 90 base stations to cover the same area.”

Before any of this happens, more demonstrations are needed, to show the system is robust against interference and multipath, and can operate in an area more crowded than 18 miles of swamp. It will also need to be approved by the FCC and other regulators round the world.

The Winding Road to Wireless Broadband

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Is the marketing of WiMax getting ahead of its true utility? An article in Newsfactor Magazine conducts a comprehensive and practical inspection into the realit(ies) surrounding WiMax, and the viability of its usage in the coming years.

First, the good news: For companies planning to deploy broadband connectivity to their mobile workforces, the options have never looked better. Initial rollouts of 3G (third-generation) cellular data technology are fulfilling the technology’s promise. Sales and field forces can connect to the Internet and corporate applications from virtually anywhere, network speeds are reasonable, and deploying the technology requires only minimal I.T. investment.

Now for the bad news: Although current 3G offerings are a good start, the path toward a truly ubiquitous, high-speed wireless world is murky. Mobile WiMax, the wireless broadband technology that’s touted as offering landline performance to mobile users over wide areas, is at best several years away, and some analysts feel it may never fulfill its promoters’ promises.

Meanwhile, some firms, like Nokia are just plain annoyed. They stress that for all its good points, it has been overhyped and won’t have anything like the impact promised.

Many industry observers are hoping that WiMax, a developing wireless broadband technology, based on a technique called OFDM (orthogonal frequency division multiplexing), will emerge ass a viable choice, since it’s more bandwidth-efficient than 3G technology or Wi-Fi.

But whereas 3G is now a viable option for many enterprises, WiMax is not. Although it’s often portrayed as a “super-Wi-Fi” technology that creates citywide hot zones, most users won’t access WiMax via cards in their notebooks as they do with 802.11b. WiMax is really an infrastructure technology, like DSL or cable modem service.

When WiMax products become available in 2006, they’ll serve the same purpose as a router, providing the backbone access to a location. Individual users will connect to the WiMax modem via a wired Ethernet or Wi-Fi connection. The prospect of mobile users connecting to WiMax hot zones directly is still years away, however, and some analysts urge customers not to hold their collective breath.

One problem is that the IEEE 802.16e standard, which enables mobile access to WiMax networks, is still about a year away from approval. Adding to the confusion — and despite vendor hype — genuine, standards-compliant hardware has yet to appear, even for fixed WiMax (the approved IEEE 802.16d standard).

However, it will take years to build out the WiMax infrastructure, but 3G will be pervasive in about two years. One possibility, is that municipalities will deploy WiMax as an Internet utility service for residents in much the same way that cities once provided gas and electric service a century ago. He believes that cities, such as Philadelphia and San Francisco, now looking to build citywide Wi-Fi networks will eventually switch to WiMax.

While that may occur, and its possible that it may become a godsend in developing countries, many are resigned to believe that ineterference issues and difficulty in the management of zones may impede it’s use an enterprise technology here in the U.S.

See the full article: The Winding Road to Wireless Broadband (Newsfactor Magazine).

The Winding Road To Wireless Broadband

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Is the marketing of WiMax getting ahead of its true utility? An article in Newsfactor Magazine conducts a comprehensive and practical inspection into the realit(ies) surrounding WiMax, and the viability of its usage in the coming years.

First, the good news: For companies planning to deploy broadband connectivity to their mobile workforces, the options have never looked better. Initial rollouts of 3G (third-generation) cellular data technology are fulfilling the technology’s promise. Sales and field forces can connect to the Internet and corporate applications from virtually anywhere, network speeds are reasonable, and deploying the technology requires only minimal I.T. investment.

Now for the bad news: Although current 3G offerings are a good start, the path toward a truly ubiquitous, high-speed wireless world is murky. Mobile WiMax, the wireless broadband technology that’s touted as offering landline performance to mobile users over wide areas, is at best several years away, and some analysts feel it may never fulfill its promoters’ promises.

Meanwhile, some firms, like Nokia are just plain annoyed. They stress that for all its good points, it has been overhyped and won’t have anything like the impact promised.

Many industry observers are hoping that WiMax, a developing wireless broadband technology, based on a technique called OFDM (orthogonal frequency division multiplexing), will emerge ass a viable choice, since it’s more bandwidth-efficient than 3G technology or Wi-Fi.

But whereas 3G is now a viable option for many enterprises, WiMax is not. Although it’s often portrayed as a “super-Wi-Fi” technology that creates citywide hot zones, most users won’t access WiMax via cards in their notebooks as they do with 802.11b. WiMax is really an infrastructure technology, like DSL or cable modem service.

When WiMax products become available in 2006, they’ll serve the same purpose as a router, providing the backbone access to a location. Individual users will connect to the WiMax modem via a wired Ethernet or Wi-Fi connection. The prospect of mobile users connecting to WiMax hot zones directly is still years away, however, and some analysts urge customers not to hold their collective breath.

One problem is that the IEEE 802.16e standard, which enables mobile access to WiMax networks, is still about a year away from approval. Adding to the confusion — and despite vendor hype — genuine, standards-compliant hardware has yet to appear, even for fixed WiMax (the approved IEEE 802.16d standard).

However, it will take years to build out the WiMax infrastructure, but 3G will be pervasive in about two years. One possibility, is that municipalities will deploy WiMax as an Internet utility service for residents in much the same way that cities once provided gas and electric service a century ago. He believes that cities, such as Philadelphia and San Francisco, now looking to build citywide Wi-Fi networks will eventually switch to WiMax.

While that may occur, and its possible that it may become a godsend in developing countries, many are resigned to believe that ineterference issues and difficulty in the management of zones may impede it’s use an enterprise technology here in the U.S.

See the full article: The Winding Road to Wireless Broadband (Newsfactor Magazine).

RapidCloud Technology Establishes Test Sites In African Markets

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With WiMAX vaunted to be a viable technology to enable wireless last-mile signal distribution for telephony and the Internet – particularly to under-or non-serviced areas – local Redline Communicationsdistributor RapidCloud Technology reports that it has commenced trial implementations with several organisations in Africa.

De Nooy explains that Redline’s RedMAX WiMAX solutions are designed to operate in a wide range of network designs and deployments, including point-to-point and point-to-multi-point, in urban and rural geographies. The solution includes WiMAX base stations for signal distribution, and subscriber units for signal reception.

“WiMax is likely to have significant success in African markets as it provides a viable alternative to E1 as an access mechanism to in difficult terrain where the deployment of wireline networks is not feasible. The advantages of the technology are obvious – a single base-station costing around $50 000 can act as a distribution point for broadband access at distances up to 25km in line of sight and 2.5km in non-line of sight scenarios, supporting up to 32 E1 equivalent connections. This significantly lowers the cost of broadband access while reducing the complexity of roll-out,” he says.

He also notes that the cost of WiMAX solutions will, like other technologies, decrease as market penetration increases.

Furthermore, De Nooy says WiMax is likely to become a viable alternative to DSL and cable for broadband access to the home. It can also be used as a reliable backhaul for WiFi (wireless LAN – 802.11 a/b/g) hotspots, particularly in the remote regions and countries lacking significant wired infrastructures in Africa.